BCR-ABL: an abnormal protein that triggers overproduction of damaged white blood cells, causing leukemia.
Blast cells: immature white blood cells found in abnormally large numbers in CML patients.
Bone marrow: the soft tissue inside bones that produces blood cells.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): a slow-developing cancer of the blood in which the body produces uncontrolled numbers of abnormal cells.
Chronic-phase CML: the first phase of CML; it can last for months or years; most people are diagnosed with CML during this phase.
occurs in the bone marrow, not just the blood. A Complete Cytogenetic Response means that there were no signs of bad cells.
Confirmed complete cytogenetic response (cCCyR): means that there were no signs of bad cells in 2 bone marrow tests.
Hematologic test: test that can detect the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in the blood
Intolerant: the inability to tolerate a medication or its side effects.
Leukemia: an acute (progresses quickly) or chronic (takes a longer time to progress) disease of the blood and bone marrow; characterized by an abnormal increase in blood cells
Major cytogenetic response (MCyR): means a decrease in the amount of bad cells in the bone marrow.
Major molecular response (MMR): means that the amount of BCR-ABL protein is very low.
Myelosuppression: a condition in which bone marrow activity is decreased, resulting in fewer red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets being produced.
Philadelphia chromosome (Ph chromosome): the chromosome abnormality that causes CML; when present, it can lead to the overproduction of white blood cells.
Platelets: blood cells that help control bleeding; when platelet levels are lower than normal, it is called thrombocytopenia.
Pleural effusion: buildup of fluid in the area between the layers of tissue that line the lungs and the chest cavity.
Red blood cells: blood cells that carry oxygen to all parts of the body; when red blood cell levels are lower than normal, it is called anemia.
Resistant: when cells that would normally be killed or slowed down by a certain drug actually survive and grow instead.
Side effects: the undesired, effects of a drug.
Symptom: a signal of illness or disease in the body that you can feel or notice, but others may not easily see
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs): a class of medications that block the production of abnormal proteins.
Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS): a metabolic disorder caused by a fast breakdown of cancer cells; can cause kidney failure and an abnormal heartbeat.
White blood cells: blood cells that help fight infections; when the level of a certain type of white blood cell is lower than normal, it is called neutropenia.